The Anabasis of Xenophon - forgottenbooks.com
Arrians Anabasis has traditionally been regarded as the most reliable extant narrative source for Alexanders campaigns. Since the 1970s, however, a more critical view of Arrian has become widespread, due largely to the work of A. B. Bosworth, who has

Arrian's Anabasis has traditionally been regarded as the most reliable extant narrative source for Alexander's campaigns. Since the 1970s, however, a more critical view of Arrian has become widespread, due largely to the work of A. B. Bosworth, who has drawn scholars' attention to Arrian's tendency to hagiography and apologia , not to mention several passages where Arrian can be shown (by comparison with other ancient sources) to be downright misleading. [6] [7]

The only complete English translation of Arrian available online is a rather antiquated translation by E.J. Chinnock, published in 1884. [5] The original Greek text used by the Perseus Digital Library is the standard A.G. Roos Teubner edition published at Leipzig in 1907. [8] An English translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt appeared in Penguin Classics in 1958. [9]

Probably the most widely used English translation is that of P.A. Brunt in the Loeb Classical Library series (with facing Greek text), in two volumes. [10] A new translation by Martin Hammond appeared in the Oxford World's Classics series in 2013. [11]

Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις – Greek for "going up") is the most famous work, in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon . [1] The journey it narrates is his best known accomplishment and "one of the great adventures in human history," as Will Durant expressed the common assessment. [2]

Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand , a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger , who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II . Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure.

Ultimately this "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon (Trebizond), a destination they greeted with their famous cry of joyous exultation on the mountain of Theches (now Madur ) in Surmene  : " thálatta, thálatta ", "the sea, the sea!" [3] "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities, but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace, and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron . Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a simple and direct manner.

Arrian's Anabasis has traditionally been regarded as the most reliable extant narrative source for Alexander's campaigns. Since the 1970s, however, a more critical view of Arrian has become widespread, due largely to the work of A. B. Bosworth, who has drawn scholars' attention to Arrian's tendency to hagiography and apologia , not to mention several passages where Arrian can be shown (by comparison with other ancient sources) to be downright misleading. [6] [7]

The only complete English translation of Arrian available online is a rather antiquated translation by E.J. Chinnock, published in 1884. [5] The original Greek text used by the Perseus Digital Library is the standard A.G. Roos Teubner edition published at Leipzig in 1907. [8] An English translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt appeared in Penguin Classics in 1958. [9]

Probably the most widely used English translation is that of P.A. Brunt in the Loeb Classical Library series (with facing Greek text), in two volumes. [10] A new translation by Martin Hammond appeared in the Oxford World's Classics series in 2013. [11]

Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις – Greek for "going up") is the most famous work, in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon . [1] The journey it narrates is his best known accomplishment and "one of the great adventures in human history," as Will Durant expressed the common assessment. [2]

Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand , a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger , who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II . Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure.

Ultimately this "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon (Trebizond), a destination they greeted with their famous cry of joyous exultation on the mountain of Theches (now Madur ) in Surmene  : " thálatta, thálatta ", "the sea, the sea!" [3] "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities, but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace, and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron . Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a simple and direct manner.

Xenophon of Athens (430-c.354 BCE) was a contemporary of Plato and a fellow student of Socrates . He is known for his writings, especially his Anabasis , Memorobilia and his Apology (the latter two dealing with Socrates and, besides Plato’s writings, the basis for what we know of Socrates) though ancient sources claim that he wrote more than forty books which were very popular (including an important treatise on horses). His Anabasis has been widely read and admired for centuries. So precise are Xenophon’s descriptions of terrain and battle that the Anabasis was used by Alexander the Great as a field guide for his own conquest of Persia .

Our editorial team reviews every submission for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards, while being easy to read with students and the general public in mind.

We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Each article costs us about $50 in history books as source material, plus editing and server costs. You can help us create even more free articles for as little as $5 per month , and we'll give you an ad-free experience to thank you! Become a Member

Anabasis ( / ə ˈ n æ b ə s ɪ s / ; Greek: Ἀνάβασις, Greek pronunciation:  [anábasis] ; "An Ascent"/"Going Up") [1] is the most famous work, in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon . [2] The journey it narrates is his best known accomplishment and "one of the great adventures in human history," as Will Durant expressed the common assessment. [3]

Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand , a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger , who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II . Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure.

Ultimately this "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon (Trebizond), a destination they greeted with their famous cry of joyous exultation on the mountain of Theches (now Madur ) in Surmene  : " thálatta, thálatta ", "the sea, the sea!". [4] "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities, but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace, and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron . Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a simple and direct manner.

Arrian's Anabasis has traditionally been regarded as the most reliable extant narrative source for Alexander's campaigns. Since the 1970s, however, a more critical view of Arrian has become widespread, due largely to the work of A. B. Bosworth, who has drawn scholars' attention to Arrian's tendency to hagiography and apologia , not to mention several passages where Arrian can be shown (by comparison with other ancient sources) to be downright misleading. [6] [7]

The only complete English translation of Arrian available online is a rather antiquated translation by E.J. Chinnock, published in 1884. [5] The original Greek text used by the Perseus Digital Library is the standard A.G. Roos Teubner edition published at Leipzig in 1907. [8] An English translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt appeared in Penguin Classics in 1958. [9]

Probably the most widely used English translation is that of P.A. Brunt in the Loeb Classical Library series (with facing Greek text), in two volumes. [10] A new translation by Martin Hammond appeared in the Oxford World's Classics series in 2013. [11]

Arrian's Anabasis has traditionally been regarded as the most reliable extant narrative source for Alexander's campaigns. Since the 1970s, however, a more critical view of Arrian has become widespread, due largely to the work of A. B. Bosworth, who has drawn scholars' attention to Arrian's tendency to hagiography and apologia , not to mention several passages where Arrian can be shown (by comparison with other ancient sources) to be downright misleading. [6] [7]

The only complete English translation of Arrian available online is a rather antiquated translation by E.J. Chinnock, published in 1884. [5] The original Greek text used by the Perseus Digital Library is the standard A.G. Roos Teubner edition published at Leipzig in 1907. [8] An English translation by Aubrey de Sélincourt appeared in Penguin Classics in 1958. [9]

Probably the most widely used English translation is that of P.A. Brunt in the Loeb Classical Library series (with facing Greek text), in two volumes. [10] A new translation by Martin Hammond appeared in the Oxford World's Classics series in 2013. [11]

Anabasis (Ἀνάβασις – Greek for "going up") is the most famous work, in seven books, of the Greek professional soldier and writer Xenophon . [1] The journey it narrates is his best known accomplishment and "one of the great adventures in human history," as Will Durant expressed the common assessment. [2]

Xenophon accompanied the Ten Thousand , a large army of Greek mercenaries hired by Cyrus the Younger , who intended to seize the throne of Persia from his brother, Artaxerxes II . Though Cyrus' mixed army fought to a tactical victory at Cunaxa in Babylon (401 BC), Cyrus himself was killed in the battle, rendering the actions of the Greeks irrelevant and the expedition a failure.

Ultimately this "marching republic" managed to reach the shores of the Black Sea at Trabzon (Trebizond), a destination they greeted with their famous cry of joyous exultation on the mountain of Theches (now Madur ) in Surmene  : " thálatta, thálatta ", "the sea, the sea!" [3] "The sea" meant that they were at last among Greek cities, but it was not the end of their journey, which included a period fighting for Seuthes II of Thrace, and ended with their recruitment into the army of the Spartan general Thibron . Xenophon related this story in Anabasis in a simple and direct manner.

Xenophon of Athens (430-c.354 BCE) was a contemporary of Plato and a fellow student of Socrates . He is known for his writings, especially his Anabasis , Memorobilia and his Apology (the latter two dealing with Socrates and, besides Plato’s writings, the basis for what we know of Socrates) though ancient sources claim that he wrote more than forty books which were very popular (including an important treatise on horses). His Anabasis has been widely read and admired for centuries. So precise are Xenophon’s descriptions of terrain and battle that the Anabasis was used by Alexander the Great as a field guide for his own conquest of Persia .

Our editorial team reviews every submission for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards, while being easy to read with students and the general public in mind.

We're a small non-profit organisation run by a handful of volunteers. Each article costs us about $50 in history books as source material, plus editing and server costs. You can help us create even more free articles for as little as $5 per month , and we'll give you an ad-free experience to thank you! Become a Member

51GD1XH18CL