Timeline of World War II (1942) - Wikipedia
The war pitted some 50 Allied nations, most notable among which were the United States , United Kingdom , Soviet Union , and China , against the Axis nations. The name Axis, a reference to the straight geographic line between the capital cities of

The war pitted some 50 Allied nations, most notable among which were the United States , United Kingdom , Soviet Union , and China , against the Axis nations. The name "Axis," a reference to the straight geographic line between the capital cities of Rome and Berlin , came from a pact signed by Germany and Italy in 1936, to which Japan became a signatory in 1940. Ultimately a number of other nations would, either willingly or unwillingly, throw in their lot with the Axis, but Germany and Japan remained the principal powers in this alliance.

Although the roots of the conflict lay before the 1930s, hostilities officially began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, and ended with the Japanese surrender to the United States six years and one day later. The war can be divided into three phases: 1939 – 41, when Axis victory seemed imminent; 1941 – 43, when Axis conquests reached their high point even as the tide turned with the U.S. and Soviet entry into the war; and 1943 – 45, as the Allies beat back and ultimately defeated the Axis.

Death toll. World War II and its attendant atrocities would exact an unparalleled human toll, estimated at 50 million military and civilian lives lost. Combat deaths alone add up to about 19 million, with the largest share of this accounted for by 10 million Soviet, 3.5 million German, 2 million Chinese, and 1.5 million Japanese deaths. (The United States lost about 400,000, and the United Kingdom some 280,000.)

The war pitted some 50 Allied nations, most notable among which were the United States , United Kingdom , Soviet Union , and China , against the Axis nations. The name "Axis," a reference to the straight geographic line between the capital cities of Rome and Berlin , came from a pact signed by Germany and Italy in 1936, to which Japan became a signatory in 1940. Ultimately a number of other nations would, either willingly or unwillingly, throw in their lot with the Axis, but Germany and Japan remained the principal powers in this alliance.

Although the roots of the conflict lay before the 1930s, hostilities officially began with the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, and ended with the Japanese surrender to the United States six years and one day later. The war can be divided into three phases: 1939 – 41, when Axis victory seemed imminent; 1941 – 43, when Axis conquests reached their high point even as the tide turned with the U.S. and Soviet entry into the war; and 1943 – 45, as the Allies beat back and ultimately defeated the Axis.

Death toll. World War II and its attendant atrocities would exact an unparalleled human toll, estimated at 50 million military and civilian lives lost. Combat deaths alone add up to about 19 million, with the largest share of this accounted for by 10 million Soviet, 3.5 million German, 2 million Chinese, and 1.5 million Japanese deaths. (The United States lost about 400,000, and the United Kingdom some 280,000.)

The two principal belligerent powers were Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, along with their respective allies. Though never engaged in military action in the Eastern Front, the United States and the United Kingdom both provided substantial material aid in the form of the Lend-Lease to the Soviet Union. The joint German–Finnish operations across the northernmost Finnish–Soviet border and in the Murmansk region are considered part of the Eastern Front. In addition, the Soviet–Finnish Continuation War may also be considered the northern flank of the Eastern Front.

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed in August 1939 was a non-aggression agreement between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. It contained a secret protocol aiming to return Central Europe to the pre–World War I status quo by dividing it between Germany and the Soviet Union. Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania would return to Russian (Soviet) control, while Poland and Romania would be divided. [ citation needed ] The Eastern Front was also made possible by the German-Soviet Commercial Agreement (1941) in which the Soviet Union gave Nazi Germany the resources necessary to launch military operations in Eastern Europe. [13]

Adolf Hitler had declared his intention to invade the Soviet Union on 11 August 1939 to Carl Jacob Burckhardt , League of Nations Commissioner, by saying:

world war ii map 1942


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